COLONIAL PREHISTORY before the Regina Indian Industrial School

Janine Windolph, one of our Multimedia Producers and director of RIIS from Amnesia, assembled together this timeline from research at the Saskatchewan Archives, and other various resources.

1670 – The Hudson Bay was founded.

1690 - Henry Kelsey (1667–1724), was the first European (an English Man) to visit this area.

Other European explorers also soon arrived followed by fur traders such as The Governor and Company of Adventurers of En

gland trading into Hudson's Bay (Hudson Bay Company) and North West Company.       

The First Nations tribes that were a part of this area were the Chipewyan, Cree,Saulteaux, Assiniboine, Atsina and Sioux.

The political boundaries of this area have changed several times evolving throughRupert’s Land and Provisional Districts of the North West Territories.

1763 – The Royal Proclamation of October 7 recognizes that the Indian Nations on land west of the established colonies should not be disturbed by settlement.

1774 - Cumberland House, the company's first trading post, was erected. One of the students of the Regina Indian Industrial School will come from this community in the future.

1816 – The School Act provides property owners in Upper Canada with the ability to meet, hire a teacher, and be eligible for government grants.

1820 – Sir Peregrine Maitland brings forward the idea of Indian residential schools in British colonial Canada.

1840 – The first school in Saskatchewan is established at Cumberland House by Henry Budd. There is still living descendants who carry the name Budd in Cumberland House.

1840 – The Act of Union unites Upper Canada and Lower Canada into a British colony called the Province of Canada.

1841 – The Common School Act provides for one central Chief Superintendent of Education for Canada East and Canada West.

1843 – The Education Act repeals the Common School Act of 1841 and re-establishes Canada East and West as responsible for education. It continues to provide for separate schools in Canada West and dissentient schools in Canada East.

1844 – The Bagot Commission Report recommends Indian residential, manual or industrial schools for First Nation’s students.

1846 – Egerton Ryerson is hired as the Chief Superintendent of Education for Canada West.

1867 – Confederation of Canada, July 1st.

1869 - Act for the Gradual Civilization of the Indian. The Gradual Civilization Act was a bill passed by the 5th Parliament of the Province of Canada. The act required male Indians and Métis over the age of 21 to read, write and speak either English or French and to choose an approved surname by which they would be legally recognized. By the application of this act, Indian and Métis males would lose all of their legal rights, as well as any land claims and would become British subjects, though with far fewer rights. It was called ‘enfranchisement,” and was one of the many policies that would be passed to aggressively assimilate Aboriginal populations.

1870 – North Western Territory and Rupert’s Land transfer from Hudson’s Bay Company to the Dominion of Canada.

1870 – The province of Manitoba is formed, with denominational schools and French and English is offered as official languages.

1871 – Treaty 2 is signed on August 21st. This covers small portion of what is now south eastern Saskatchewan.

1874 – Treaty 4 is signed on September 15th. This covers most of what is now South Saskatchewan and the South Saskatchewan River. The federal government begins to establish schools on reserves.

1874 - The Royal Canadian Mounted Police training depot was established in 1874, and still survives. The RCMP chapel frame building was built in 1885 is still standing which was used to jail Indian prisoners

1875 – Treaty 5 is signed. This covers Cumberland House, Shoal River and Red Earth.

1875 – The North-West Territories Act is passed which allows local governments to operate schools and the rights of Catholic and Protestant to have separate schools.

1876 – The North-West Territories Act is proclaimed and provisions are made.

1876 – Treaty 6 is signed on September 9th. This covers what is north of Saskatchewan.

1876 - First Indian Act. The Indian Act of 1876 secured government control over Indian rights, status, and lands. A series of amendments increased the government’s control over Indian lives and lands. Crushing prohibitions, designed to extinguish what were considered to be uncivilized and savage cultural practices, were introduced. The Indian Act also allowed the government to realize its ambition to assimilate Aboriginal peoples through the creation of residential schools.

1879 – March 14.Nicholas Flood Davin: Report, submitted to Sir John A. Macdonald, makes 13 recommendations concerning the administration of industrial boarding schools in a document called “Report on Industrial Schools for Indians and Halfbreeds”. Nicholas Flood Davin’s Report on Industrial Schools and Half-breeds, also known as the Davin Report, which included a number of recommendations on how the American policy on Aboriginal education could be replicated in Canada. By the time the Davin Report was released, the idea of separating children from their parents as an effective education-and assimilation-strategy had already taken root. The persuasive example of what could be achieved through a ‘boarding school’ model like the one in the United States generated fervour to implement a similar system in Canada.

1881 – North-West Territories schools with a minimum daily attendance of 15 students are paid one-half of the teacher’s salary from the Parliament of Canada. First form of financial support to the government of the North West.

1882 – Canadian Pacific Railway was built across the Plains. Homesteaders were attracted to this area because of the Dominion Lands Act, which allowed them to claim 160 Acres for $10.

1882 – Regina was founded.

The city was originally known as "Pile of Bones"—the English translation of the aboriginal place name—because of the large amounts of buffalo bones on the banks of the Wascana Creek, a spring runoff channel rising some couple of kilometres to the east of Regina and gradually becoming a substantial coulee as it approaches the Qu'Appelle Valley some ten kilometres to the north.

Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, wife of the Duke of Argyll, who was then the Governor General of Canada, named the new community Regina (Latin for queen), after her mother. The Queen, Queen City.

Alternate names considered: Leopold (for a son of Queen Victoria), Wascana (a mildly anglicized version of the Cree for "Pile of Bones") and Assiniboia (the aboriginal people who gave their name to the district of the North-West Territories, corresponding to modern southern Saskatchewan, a famous mountain in the Canadian Rockies, a town southwest of Moose Jaw, and a river in Manitoba.

Because of its key location with the transcontinental railway, Dewdney invested in substantial land in Regina.,_Saskatchewan

1883 – Donald C. McDougall built the first house in Regina. It was located on what is now Arcola and Prince of Wales Drive.

1883 – Regina was chosen as the capital of the North West Territories.

After that, the North West Mounted Police moved to Regina from Qu’eppelle.

1883 - Officially becomes a town.

1884 - The town's first mayor, David Scott, was elected on January 10.

1884 – An Ordinance Providing for the Organization of the Schools in the North-West Territories is passed. The first school districts are formed and they are to be administered by Roman Catholic and Protestant sections of a territorial Board of Education. – Pg. 280 from the History of Saskatchewan

1885 – Teaching Certificates are issued in North-West Territories. A Territorial Ordinance provides for the establishment of separate school districts by minority Catholics or Protestents within the boundaries of the public school district. – Pg. 280 from History of Saskatchewan.

1885 – North West Rebellion

            Chief Okanese, who was one of the signatories of Treaty 4 fled to the Dakotas in order to avoid the conflict as he believed the Metis cause would not benefit them. Chief Okanese is the grandfather of future student of the Regina Indian Industrial School, Frederick Dieter.

1885 – Louise Reil was brought to Regina after his troops were defeated by government forces in the North West Rebellion in the spring

1885 - Riel was found guilty of treason and hanged on November 16.

1888- A School of Ordinance first provides for Union High Schools, and then Normal Departments to deliver teacher education. - Pg 280 from History of Saskatchewan.

1889 – The Board of Education of the North-West Territories requests the dominion government to establish a university; the request if refused. – Pg. 280 from the History of Saskatchewan.

1890 – University graduates meet in Regina to plan for a government-endowed university.